Energy Glossary

At we like to simplify life for businesses and individuals. Most of us do not think about energy on a daily basis. Yet, when the time comes to reading and understanding our energy bills, we often get confused. Sometimes energy terminology seems like a foreign language. Terms like unit rates, kilowatt-hours, standing charges, confuse and befuddle many.  To help out we put together an energy dictionary that hopefully can help you find what various energy terms mean. 

Most likely you will never need to know a lot of these terms, and what they mean. Some may be curious to know about the history of energy and how it came to be this way. If you are, we have a fantastic blog for you here.

Additionality measures the amount of extra emissions reduction that renewable energy generates. Specifically, additionality measures how much renewable energy generation reduced emissions in addition and above normal energy generation activity.
Active power is the rate of production, transfer of use of electrical energy. Active Power is measured in watts (kilowatts, kW, or megawatts, MW). Active Power is sometimes referred to as Real Power.
Advanced Conversion Technology is thermal process technology to help manage and dispose of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Falsification and pyrolysis are examples of Advanced Conversion Technology.
Agreed Capacity is a pre-agreed electrical load amount for a property. Agreed Capacity is stated in the property’s Connection Agreement with the local Distribution Network Operator (DNO).
An Air Handling Unit is a combination of equipment that provides heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) for buildings. An Air Handling Unit often includes a fan (or a blower). An Air Handling Unit improves efficiency as it enables control.
An Air Source Heat Pump, also known as ASHP, transfers heat between an indoor space and the outside. An Air Source Heat Pump takes the heat from the outside, and transfers the heat into the indoor space when heating the building. An Air Source Heat Pump takes the heat out of the indoor space when cooling the indoor spaces.
An Alternative Current is electricity that periodically changes direction. The period is measured in Cycles per Second (Hertz, Hz).
AMP is a unit of measurement that measures the electrical current flow rate.
Anaerobic Digestion is a biological process that produces methane (CH4) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) gases. These are also known as biogas. Organic waste, such as manure, food processing etc… produce these gases.
Annual Quantity is the sum of the annual energy consumption on a site across all the meters. National Grid calculates Annual Quantity based on historical usage from previous years. Annual Quantity is measured in kilowatt hours (kWh) for electricity or Therms for gas. Supply Point AQ is the total annual energy consumption or use of all the site (or property) meters.
Apparent Power is the product of the voltage (volts) and the current amps. Apparent Poer is comprised of both active and reactive power. Apparent Power is measured in kVa or MVa.
AMR is a technology that enables remote automatic meter readings. AMR uses telephone lines and is able to send data into billing systems.

Availability (kVA) is also known as Agreed Capacity. Availability states the site’s capacity limit. The maximum demand for the site should not exceed Availability. Distribution Network Operator (DNO) sets and charges for Availability, according to the site’s kVA.

This fee pays for the electricity network’s upkeep. The charge is often called the Capacity Charge. Energy customers pay a fee (per unit) based on the agreed capacity for that site.

Available Supply Capacity, (sometimes known as Agreed Capacity), is a pre-agreed electrical load amount for a site. Availability Supply Capacity is usually stated in the property’s Connection Agreement with the Distribution Network Operator (DNO) that manages the area.
A Balancing Mechanism is used to balance the supply and demand for electricity. The National Grid uses the Balancing Mechanism to manage the UK's electricity.
A Base Load is the minimum level of electricity demand. As an example, a site with a high maximum demand of 800 kVa where the demand never drops below 300 kVa has a base load of 250 kVa.

A battery is two or more electrical cells that produce and store electricity when joined together.

Bilateral Energy Trading is a contractual relationship between two trading parties (e.g. a generator & a supplier) where one party agrees to deliver electricity to the other party at an agreed time in the future.
Biogas is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. Biogas is considered a renewable fuel as it is produced from waste treatment. Biogas is produced when bacteria degrades biological material (without oxygen present) in a process called anaerobic digestion.
Biomass is a biofuel or bioenergy. Biomass is created from organic matter (such as plants) or from industrial, agricultural and commercial products. Generally Biomass is considered ‘carbon neutral’ as the CO2 released during the energy generation is balanced by CO2 absorption by plants during growth.
Bottom Ash is a non-airborne combustion residue produced when pulverized coal is burned in a boiler.
The British Electricity Trading and Transmission Arrangements (BETTA) created a single wholesale electricity market in the United Kingdom. BETTA replaced NETA and includes Scotland.
A Bubble refers to a Kyoto Protocol that enables countries to meet their emission targets jointly by aggregating their total emissions. A number of European Union countries use the Bubble mechanism.
Building Energy Rating rates the energy performance of a building or a home on a scale of A-G. A-rated properties are the most energy efficient. G-rated properties are the least energy efficient.
BREEAM method is a framework for assessing a building’s environmental performance. Performance based credits are awarded based on relevant criteria.
A Burnup is a thermal energy release measure of nuclear fuel relative to its mass, normally measured in Gigawatt days per tonne (GWd/tU).
Calorific Value is the amount of heat that a specified amount of gas produces. Energy companies use Calorific Value to calculate energy consumption associated with a particular gas volume used. Calorific Value is measured in joules per kilogram.
A Cap and Trade scheme is a trading mechanism based on emission pollution allowances. In the Cap and Trade scheme a quantity of allowed pollutant emissions is fixed (e.g. CO2 or greenhouse gas emissions). Participants in the Cap and Trade scheme (e.g. factories) trade these emission allowances to meet the cap at the lowest possible cost.
A Capacity Charge is a fee for maintaining and improving the electricity network in the United Kingdom. Distribution Network Operator (DNO), responsible for managing the electricity networks throughout the United Kingdom, levy this charge based on the Agreed Capacity of a property or a site. A Capacity Charge is often referred to as an Availability Charge.
A Capacity Margin Instrument requires the electricity industry participants to provide a pre-defined level of electricity generation capacity.
A Capacity Margin Instrument requires the electricity industry participants to provide a pre-defined level of electricity generation capacity.
Carbon Capture and Storage is a technology to capture carbon dioxide that is released into the atmosphere as a result of fossil fuel usage (either before or after combustion).
Carbon storage is a long-term CO2 storage in the soil, ocean, forests or depleted oil & gas reservoirs, coal seams and saline aquifers. Carbon storage and Carbon Capture and storage or CSS are often used interchangeably.
A Carbon Credit is granted as part of the greenhouse gas emissions reduction scheme (see Cap & Trade Scheme). A Cap & Trade scheme controls emissions via a pre-set cap on total emissions. Carbon Credits allow various market participants (both polluting and non-polluting companies) to find a market-based supply & demand equilibrium by trading Carbon Credits.
Carbon Dioxide, CO2, is an inert non-toxic gas. Decaying materials, plant and animal respiration, and combustion of organic matter, such as fossil fuels produce CO2.
Carbon Dioxide Equivalent is a standard unit of measurement that quantifies the total impact of greenhouse gases on climate change. The Kyoto Protocol limits six main greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change. Different gases contribute differently to the global warming potential. Carbon Dioxide Equivalent simplifies the measurement of such global warming contributions across the six gases.
Carbon Dioxide Tonnage is a measure of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions, which is measure in metric tonnes. For example, an average household produces 10.9 tonnes of CO2 emissions annually.
The CERT is a regulated instrument, in the United Kingdom, aimed at reducing carbon emissions from existing households. OFGEM, the UK energy regulator, is administers the programme.
A Carbon Footprint measures how much carbon dioxide (CO2) we (people, households and businesses) emit through fossil fuels combustion. Everyday activities, such as driving a car or flying on an airplane, have a measurable Carbon Footprint.
Carbon Intensity is the volume of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) that a given electricity volume emits. Carbon Intensity enables emission level comparisons between different energy sources. As an example, a coal based power station produces around 900 CO2 grams per kilowatt hour. A gas-fired power station produces approximately 370 CO2 grams per kilowatt hour.
Carbon Neutral is a term used to describe activities (or processes) that do not add to the net amount of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in the Earth’s atmosphere. Carbon Offsets can be used to achieve carbon neutrality. You can check out EnergyBillKill’s carbon offsetting by clicking here.
A Carbon Offset is an economic instrument that may negate Carbon Dioxide (CO2) release into the atmosphere during a specific activity by removing or avoiding CO2 release elsewhere. For example a Carbon Offset may fund renewable energy generation or planting trees. EnergyBillKill has a simple-to-use carbon offsetting tool. A credible scheme should be used to purchase Carbon Offsets.
The CRC is an emissions trading scheme in the United Kingdom for larger organisations. Carbon Reduction Commitment is designed for organizations that are not eligible for EU Emissions Trading. The scheme is government run and mandatory. Participants include banks, large offices, universities, large hospitals, large local authorities and central government departments.
A Carbon Tax is a tax charged on fossil fuel use, typically based on the carbon content. The Carbon Tax is generally utilised to curb Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions.
Carbon Trading enables individuals, corporations or national governments to trade Carbon Credits with the aim to reduce carbon emissions. When carbon reduction targets are exceeded, surplus Carbon Credits can be sold as credits to individuals, corporations and countries that exceed their limits.
The Carbon Trust is an independent United Kingdom based non-profit company that supports and promotes the development of low carbon technologies. The UK government set up the Carbon trust to support efforts to reduce carbon emissions and deal with the climate change challenges.
Carbon Value is the monetary value that is placed on the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions. The more carbon dioxide is produced the more expensive is the Carbon Value. Under the Emissions Trading Scheme, companies in the European Union are capped at how much CO2 emissions may be generated. Companies may buy and sell their allocated permits, and market forces may establish the Carbon Value based on supply and demand. At the same time, companies that invest in low carbon technologies, will benefit from selling their Carbon credits to more polluting companies. This encourages low carbon methods.
A circuit is a collection of electrical conductors and wires that enable the flow of electrical currents.
A circuit breaker stops the flow of power to protect a circuit when power surges.
Clean Coal Technologies enable a more environmentally friendly coal use to produce electricity. Clean Coal Technologies reduce greenhouse missions that coal-fired power plants produce.
Clean Development Mechanism helps developing countries to promote sustainable development as part of the Kyoto Protocol. The mechanism helps developing nations meet greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments. The Clean Development Mechanism enables industrialized nations to invest in green and renewable projects. Industrialized nations receive carbon credits if such investments achieve desired CO2 reductions.
Climate Change is a term that generally describes man-made contribution to variation in the Earth’s temperature changes, currently associated with global warming.
The Climate Change Agreement is an agreement between the Government and a business. If a business commits to achieve pre-agreed targets for energy efficiency and/or carbon emission reduction, the Government may reduce the Climate Change Levy.

The Climate Change Levy is a UK government tax. The tax is designed to incentivise the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and promote energy efficiency among business and non-domestic users. The Climate Change Levy, also known as CCL, can only be charged on the actual energy consumed, measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh). CCL is not charged on standing charges. The Climate Change Levy is index-linked and therefore may go up from time-to-time. The CCL charge typically appears separately on the energy bill. If the businesses’ VAT is charged at a reduced rate, the supply is automatically excluded from CCL.


Some business sites may be entitled to a full relief from the Climate Change Levy. To obtain the relief, businesses must submit the PP11 Supplier Certificate to HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC). PP11 Supplier certificates are non-transferrable.

The Climate Change Programme is the UK’s government commitment and strategy to tackle Climate Change to meet the 12.5% reduction in greenhouse gas emission (from 1990 levels) under the Kyoto protocol. It was published in 2000. The Climate Change Programme also aimed to reduce the UK’s domestic CO2 emissions by 20% within 10 years (by 2010).
Coal Bed Methane is natural gas that is generated and trapped within coal seams. Also known as CBM, is released when drilling is executed directly into unworked coal to release the methan locked within.
Coal generation is the use of coal powder to generate electricity. The coal is first ground into powder, then burned in large boilers with an objective to heat water. This process generates steam that is sent through a turbine. The steam makes the turbine rotate and generate electricity. The electricity is then supplied into the national grid. Traditionally Coal Generation has accounted for one third of the United Kingdom’s electricity generation output.
Coal Mine Methane is the gas residue that coal mines continue to emit even after the coal mine is closed. Methane capture technologies aim to use this gas as an energy source, rather than leaving it as a waste.
Cogeneration is an energy generating technology that enables on-site energy generation. Cogeneration is also known as Combined Heat and Power (CHP). CHP systems may utilise low carbon energy sources (e.g. biogas).
COGENT is a Sector Skills Council working with the oil and gas extraction and chemical manufacturers.
Combined Cooling Heat and Power is a technology that uses fuel to generate electrical power and utilise thermal energy produced for cooling and heating.
Combined Cycle Gas turbine is a gas fired electricity generation facility that utilises heat waste to power a steam turbine.
A Combined Half Hourly Data Charge is the price or cost to collect and handle Half Hourly (HH) meter data
Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation is a technology that enables the recovery of heat that is lost during energy generation. Up to 60% of the energy is lost through heat. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems use this heat to power turbines in order to generate more electricity. If done right, a CHP system may contribute to reducing Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions.

Combined Heat and Power Quality Assurance (CHPQA) is the framework that helps to monitor and evaluate Good Quality CHP Capacity.

Accordion Content
A Competition Clause is a contractual commitment that empowers the energy user to renegotiate their energy contract after a twelve month period in an eighteen month contract. The energy user is free to look for the lowest rates after twelve months. The energy user is free to switch away from the energy provider if the energy provider can not match the lowest price at the time. The Competition Clause is included in some, but not all energy contracts.
A conductor is a substance that enables electricity current to pass through. For example, ionic compounds dissolved in water are good electricity conductors. Generally, metals tend to be very good conductors. The human body is a ‘mini power station’ and is also a good electricity conductor.
A Confirmation Reference is a unique number that the National Grid assigns to individual customers.
A Connection Agreement states the amount of Agreed Capacity in relation to energy for a given site or property. The local Distribution Network Operator (DNO) produces and agrees this document for a given property.

A Corrector Meter is an instrument that measures temperature and pressure variations for large gas usage properties or sites. A Corrector Meter is often installed when the energy company needs a more accurate and precise gas usage measure (rather than relying on the standard fixed conversion factor).

Cost To Service is a term used to describe electricity supplier expenses associated with supplying electricity. Cost To Serve may include expenses such as staff salaries, information technology management etc…

CT Metering is a measurement for 100 amp and above.

Daily Contract Quantity is the amount of gas that will be supplied on a daily basis to a site (referred to as a sales contract) or to a terminal (referred to as a supply contract).

A Daily Meter is a supply point with a predefined minimum annual consumption quantity. A Daily Meter is mandatory above a certain consumption level. A Daily Meter will be installed on any supply point that has consumption greater than 58,600,000kWh (2,000,000 therms per annum).

A Data Aggregator (DA) is an agement who aggregates meter readings that are received from the Data Collectors (DC). A Data Aggregator (DA) sends this meter readings data to the Supplier.
A Data Collector (DC) is an accredited organisation that collects data from the Half Hourly (HH) Metering System. Pool Accreditation Body grants Data Collector accreditations to carry out its work. Energy suppliers appoint the Data Collector to retrieve and validate Half Hourly meter data. This data is forwarded via a Metering System to the Data Aggregator. Customers may also choose a Data Collector, but any appointed Data Collector must be accredited with the Pool Accreditation Body.
A Data Logger is a recording device that records meter readings and sends these to the meter reading agency.
Decay is an atomic process associated with the emission of alpha or beta particulars (with gamma radiation). It is an exponential radioactivity decrease accompanying a nuclear disintegration that leads to a more stable nuclei formation.
A Declared Net Capacity (DNC) is the highest amount of electricity that can be generated minus the amount of electricity consumed by the plant, indefinitely maintained and without leading to plant damage.
A Deemed Contract is an energy contract which energy companies apply to a business that has moved into a new property. Deemed Contract rates are very expensive. Businesses need to switch to a new fixed or variable contract as soon as they move into the new premises. You can read more about it by clicking here.
Demand Side Response (DSR) are payments to businesses to incentivise them to change energy consumption. The National Grid initiates Demand Side Response during peak energy use or when the energy distribution system is under stress.
The Department of Trade and Industry is a United Kingdom’s governmental department. The Department of Trade and Industry has a leading role in overseeing the United Kingdom’s energy policy management and execution.
Depleted Uranium is a by-product residue that is produced as a result of the uranium enrichment process. The concentration of U235 isotope is less in the Depleted Uranium that in the naturally occuring uranium.
A Direct Current (DC) is an electrical current that flows only in a singular circuit direction. Batteries and fuel cells generate direct current. You can read more about the history of electricity by clicking here.
Distributed and Microgeneration is a non-centralised generation and distribution of electricity that is not connected to the central national energy system such as the National Grid. Microgeneration is smaller scale and often localised energy generation technology.
Distributed Generation is electricity generation that is independent of the national transmission systems, such as the National Grid. Distributed Generation is relatively small scale at the moment, but is gaining in popularity.
Distribution Losses (Dloss) are charges for distributing power losses that occur as a result of transmission through wires.
Distribution Network Operators are companies that are responsible for operating the UK's regional energy networks that connect domestic and non-domestic energy users to the national transmission system. The United Kingdom has fourteen Distribution Network Operators.
Distribution Use of System charges are fees and costs that Distribution Network Operators (DNOs) publish and charge for electricity delivery via the Grid Supply Point to the energy customer’s location or premise.
A District Heating Network is a heating system that connects insulated pipes to deliver heat (or cooled water) from an energy centre to many end users.
The District Network Operator (DNO) operates and manages the electricity distribution network in the United Kingdom. There are fourteen District Network Operators. They are privately owned companies subject to strict regulations. District Network Operators manage cables (installation and maintenance) and coordinate/execute electricity distribution to the grid supply point.
Domestic Supply is generally a description of a household energy user. A Supply Point that has an 73,200kWH (2500 therms) Annual Quantity (AQ) or less, is regarded as a domestic site, but may also be classified as a non-domestic user. Domestic does not always mean residential in this context.
A Non-Domestic Supply is generally a description of a business energy user. A supply point with an AQ of over 73,000 kWh is typically classified as a non-domestic supply.
An Electric Current describes the rate of electricity that flows via an electrical conductor. Electric Current is normally measured in amperes (amps). If you are a history buff, we have a nice history of the electric current that you can read here.
An Electrical Cell is an electricity producing or storing device.
An Electricity Meter is a measuring device that records how much electricity is used.
An Electricity Pool is the mechanism when suppliers and generators trade electricity. Large electricity customers may also trade through the Electricity Pool mechanism.
An Electromagnet is a form of a magnetic field. When an electric current passes through a wire that is wrapped around iron, an electromagnet is created.
An Electronic Data Interchanges is a computer application that allows a secure programmatic billing data transfer directly to customers.
Emissions Trading describes a trading system where countries, companies and factories are able to buy and sell emissions under the Cap & Trade system. The purpose of the Emissions Trading system is to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse emissions in an affordable way. The aspiration is that Emissions Trading reduces compliance costs with new environmental targets.
The Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is a European Union’s version of Emissions Trading. The Emissions Trading Scheme enables trading of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2).
Energie is a European Union initiative that supports research, development and demonstration that demonstrate cost efficient energy on a pan- European level. Among the objectives is to diminish environmental damage associated with energy production and use. The aim is to increase new and renewable energy sources within the European Union.
The Energy Charter Treaty is a multilateral agreement that promotes trade, investment and transit of energy products. The treaty sets standards for non-discriminatory energy supply access.
Energy Cost is a term that is used within the energy industry to describe the cost of purchasing electricity through the wholesale markets via the Notional Balancing POint (NBP). Energy Cost is the largest part of energy unit rates. Energy Cost normally contributes 60 and 80% of the overall business’s total bill.
Energy Efficiency is a measure of how to minimise the use of electricity for lighting, heating, or cooling. To read more about energy efficiency please click here.
Energy Efficiency Commitment is an obligation imposed on domestic energy suppliers that requires them to achieve specific energy savings targets. Energy companies achieve these commitments by installing energy efficient technologies inside UK households. To read the OfGem’s Energy Efficiency Commitment publication please click here.
Energy From Waste is a process to extract energy from domestic and non-domestic waste. Energy From Waste may be a better solution for the environment than the landfills.
Energy Only is a term that describes a sale and purchase of electricity only without delivery charges (DUoS & TUoS) included in the quotation.
An Energy Performance Certificate, also known as EPC, states the building’s or premises’ energy efficiency performance. An Energy Performance Certificate is given to potential buyers or tenants to make them aware about the building’s or premises energy efficiency. The energy efficiency scale is graded A to G. A is the most efficient.
The Energy Performance of Building Directive or EPBD is a European Union Directive that promotes building energy performance using cost-effective methods. The Energy Performance of Building Directory has four principle pillars: 1) Calculation framework to determine buildings’ energy performance; 2) Minimum energy efficiency and performance prerequisites for new and existing buildings; 3) Availability of the Energy Performance Certificate or EPC; 4) Regular boiler and air conditioning system inspection. To read more on the Energy Performance of Building Directive please click here.
The Energy Saving Trust, otherwise known as EST, is an independent charity that manages energy efficiency programmes in the United Kingdom. The UK government provides the majority of the Energy Saving Trust’s funding. The primary focus of the Energy Saving Trust has largely been energy efficiency in domestic consumption. To visit the Energy Saving Trust please click here.
An Energy Services Company, otherwise known as ESCO, is a special purpose company with the focus on energy management and water conservation. Energy Service Companies operate independently of the incumbent regulated utilities and may undertake energy audits, equipment commissioning, maintenance, measurements, verification and guarantee of savings across electricity, heat and chilled water. These services may be provided to a pre-defined set of users or a local community.
The Energy Services Directive (also known as ESD) is the European Union’s policy that promotes energy efficiency programmes and measures to deliver energy efficiency solutions to end customers.
Enriched uranium is Uranium where the U-235 (to U-238) proportion has been increased above 0.7%. Nuclear reactors typically enrich uranium to about 3.5% U-235, whereas weapons-grade uranium is enriched to more than 90% U-235.
Uranium Enrichment is a physical process of increasing the proportion of U-235 to U-238.
A gas entry point is the point where the supplier delivers gas into the National Transmission System, in other words the terminal.
The Environmental Agency is a United Kingdom public body whose mission is to protect and improve the environment in England and Wales. You can visit the Environment Agency’s website by clicking here.
The European Emissions Trading Scheme is a greenhouse emissions trading framework that was introduced in 2005. Please see the ‘Carbon emissions trading scheme’. To learn more please click here.
A Gas Exit Zone is a predefined point where the gas offtake is situated.
Export Metering is a technology that enables an energy generating site to export generated electricity.
A Firm Gas is a guaranteed supply of gas to a customer, without any interruption.
A Fixed Charge is a daily, monthly or quarterly charge that an energy supplier may charge a customer in addition to the Standing Charge. Fixed Charges may include fees such as Availability Charges.
A Fixed Term Contract is an energy supply contract that fixes the price of energy (electricity or gas), during a fixed time period. A Fixed Term Contract delivers a constant price over the fixed energy period, providing customers with energy cost certainty.
A Flex is an electrical wire that is covered with insulation.
Flue Gas Desulphurisation, otherwise known as FGD, is a filter technology to reduce the release of sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere in coal-powered energy plants. Flue Gas Desulphurisation reduces Sulphur Dioxide release by 90%. Sulphur Dioxide contributes to acid rain. The gas is captured, and mixed with limestone to create gypsum for industrial use.
A Force Majeure is an unanticipated disruptive event that is beyond the control of one or both of the contracting parties, and interferes with a party's ability to perform under a contract. A force majeure event typically releases a party from a contractual obligation.
An Electricity Forwards Contract is an agreement to buy electricity at a specified time and at a specified price in the future. The payments are made at the delivery date.
A fossil fuel is a source of energy that is extracted from the Earth’s crust and was formed as a result of decayed organic material. Among fossil fuels that are in wide use are oil, coal, and natural gas. Fossil Fuels are a major contributor to global warming and pollution levels.
The Fossil Fuel Levy is an energy tax in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. The UK Parliament introduced the Fossil Fuel Levy to pay for nuclear plants’ decommissioning. Please click here to see the original bill. The Fossil Fuel Levy is set at 0.3%. Scotlan has a separate tax called the Scottish Renewable Order or SRO, with the tax set at 0.8%.
Fuel Cells produce electricity using hydrogen and air. Fuel Cells are considered a clean technology because water is the only emission.
The Fuel Mixed Disclosure, otherwise known as FMD, is a regulatory requirement that mandates energy companies to publish what fuel sources they use to generate electricity and what the emissions from these fuel sources are. Energy selling companies must provide Fuel Mix Disclosure for any energy that they generate or buy in the market. To learn more about your energy company’s fuel mix disclosure please click here.
Fuel Standardised Energy Savings are mathematical coefficients that the European Union attaches to a particular fuel source. Fuel Standardised Energy Savings is designed to make easier carbon concentration comparisons between different fuel sources. The coefficients used are: coal 0.56, electricity 0.80, gas 0.35, LPG 0.43 and oil 0.46
A Fuse is an electrical safety device. A Fuse prevents too much electricity from flowing to electrical appliances and thus protects their operation.
A Gas Act Owner or GAO is an organization (or an individual) that is responsible for installing meters to measure gas consumption. The Gas Act Owner is also responsible for the meter maintenance. The Gas Act Owner may be a Consumer, Supplier or a Transporter.
A Gas Substation reduces gas pressure and is located on the customers’ premises. The gas pressure is regulated down to medium or low to enable domestic or non-domestic, business gas use.
A Gas Transporter, otherwise known as GT, maintains the gas supply network. An energy supplier may request that a Gas Transporter provides a meter at the consumer’s site. A Gas Transporter will need a GT license to provide the meter service.
Gas-fired Generation is the use of gas to generate electricity. Gas-fired power stations produce approximately 30% of the United Kingdom’s electricity generation. Gas-fired power stations emmitt significantly lower volume of greenhouse gases than fossil fuel based energy production. The energy industry prefers to utilise Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (or CCGTs) as the relevant technology to build more gas-enabled power stations.
Gasification is the use of carefully controlled oxygen to break down hydrocarbons into a syngas.
Electricity Generation is a term used to describe the production of electricity at power stations. To learn more about the history of electricity generation in the United Kingdom please click here. The main fuels that are used to produce electricity are: gas, nuclear and coal, and increasingly renewable energy such as wind and solar. In 2019 and 2020 renewable sources generated the majority of UK electricity output in certain periods of time and were cheaper. To read more please click here.
A Generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electricity. National Power, Scottish Hydro, Powergen, Scottish Power and Nuclear Electric are the main Generators in the United Kingdom.
A GigaWatt is a unit of measure for electricity. 1 Gigawatt or GW equal 1,000 MegaWatts. To read more about the history and background to electricity measurements and please click here.
Global Warming is the on-going increase in the Earth’s average temperatures on the surface and in the atmosphere. Scientists believe, based on research and data, that greenhouse gases from fossil fuels, industrial processes and intensive agriculture contribute to the global warming acceleration. Increasingly, many businesses are concerned with global warming. In the UK, EnergyBillKill’s 2020 survey found that 70% of UK small businesses would like to use renewable energy for their business. To read more please click here.
Green Certificates officially certify that a specific amount of green electricity has been produced. Green Certificates record the renewable energy’s value to the environment. These certificates can be traded independently of the generated energy.
A Greenhouse Effect describes how gases in the earth’s atmosphere trap heat. The increased volume of these gases is causing Global Warming. Carbon Dioxide (or CO2) is the leading contributor to the Greenhouse Effect.
A Greenhouse Gas, or GHG, is an atmospheric gas that absorbs Sun’s heat (infra-red radiation) in the atmosphere. Greenhouse Gases include: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), water vapour, , halogenated fluorocarbons (HCFCs), ozone (O3), perfluorinated carbons (PFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).
The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG) is a set of guidelines published by the World Resources Institute and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol sets our reporting standards for corporate greenhouse emissions calculations and the corporate carbon footprint.
The Grid Supply Point, also known as the GSP, is the delivery point in the energy infrastructure where the National Grid delivers energy into the local distribution system.
A Grid Trading Master Agreement, also known as GTMA, is a pro-forma template agreement with standard terms & conditions to trade UK power at the National Balancing Point.
A Ground Source Heat Pump, also known as GSHP, extracts natural heat found underground or in the groundwater, to heat or cool inside buildings. The Ground Source Heat Pump extracts the heat via groundwater or an antifreeze solution and pumps the heat through to heat a building. To cool a building, the process is reversed. The Ground Source Heat Pump extracts the heat from the building and transfers it into the earth. To read more about heat pumps please click here.
A GSM is a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) a standard developed in the European Union by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The GSM standard has been adopted worldwide and is used in 90%+ of mobile communications. Within the energy sector a GSM device is a mobile device connected to the meter and uses the mobile signal to send meter reading to the energy company.
A Half-Hourly meter is an energy usage meter (primarily used by businesses) that collects energy consumption data every half hour. The half-hourly consumption reading enables more precise billing, with less room for error. Half Hourly meters are also known as Code 5 (business can find the designation on their bills). Half Hourly meters are mandatory for any site that uses more than 100 kva of energy. A business or a large domestic user may also request a Half Hourly meter if the consumption is below 100kva. To read more about the Half Hourly meter please click here.
Half Hourly Data, also known as HHD, are the meter reading results from the Half Hourly Meter. Business users are able to access the entire data set from their supplier. The data is usually made available in a spreadsheet.
Hand Held Reads in Outstation is a procedure for manual reading of the meter and energy use. A professional meter reader will manually take the usage information (often on a weekly basis). No comms installed, a meter reader will attend weekly to read the meter.
HDC Levy is a tax managed by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) imposed on all electricity suppliers in the United Kingdom. The purpose of the tax is to fund areas of the country that face high electricity distribution costs.
A Heat Rate is the measurement of how much energy is required to operate a particular machinery. The Heat Rate is normally expressed per unit of time in KiloWatt hours (kWh\h) or BTU\h.
High Voltage is a technical term usually associated with energy transmission with 11,000 Volts or above.
Hydroelectricity is the production of electricity using the force generated by falling water. Most hydroelectricity generation is associated with damming a river to create falling water that drops on and turns turbine blades. Hydroelectricity is generally considered to be environmentally friendly at the point of generation, but generally can be very destructive to the surrounding environment when built. More recent hydroelectric projects and proposals have focused on limiting damage to the surrounding environment. To read more about various renewable energies please click here.
An Import is an energy site that consumes electricity rather than generates and exports electricity. Import sites are the most common energy sites.
An Independent Public Gas Transporter, also known as IGT, is a company that is responsible for maintaining parts of the gas supply network. Public Gas Transporter companies are independent of energy companies.
Infrastructure Costs generally refer to the cost of building and maintaining relevant infrastructure. In the context of the UK energy sector, Infrastructure Costs are expenses associated with provision of the energy infrastructure that is needed to deliver energy power. These costs typically include energy loss during transmission from the power station via distribution wires to domestic and non-domestic energy users. This energy costs are called Tloss and Dloss. Energy companies also have to pay transmission and distribution charges to Distribution Network Operators (DNOs). These charges are called TUoS and DUoS.
An Insulator is a type of material that helps to reduce or completely stop electricity flow.
Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, otherwise known as IGCC, gasifies raw fuel (such as coal, oil products and waste) to create synthesis gas.
Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control, otherwise known as IPPC, is a European Union directive that aims to limit and minimize pollution from different sources across the European Union. The IPPC utilises the Best Available Techniques (or BAT) principles.
The International Panel on Climate Change, also known as IPCC, is an intergovernmental organisation that is jointly administered by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). IPPC seeks to inform governments about the latest scientific research, technological advancements, social and economic impact associated with Climate Change.
ISO 14064 is an international corporate emissions reporting standard. ISO 14064 incorporates Greenhouse Gas Protocol’s framework and principles.
A Kilowatt/Hour, also known as kWh, is a standard unit of measure for electrical power use. One Kilowatt/hour equals 1,000 watts. When households and businesses receive energy bills, they can see the amount of energy used expressed in kWh. To read more about the Kilowatt Hour please click here.
The Kyoto Accord was signed in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan where thirty eight industrialised countries committed to cut ‘carbon-rich’ gas emission by 5.2% by 2010.
The Kyoto Protocol committed thirty eight industrialized countries to achieve a 5.2% cut in ‘carbon-rich’ emission by 2010. More than 170 countries participated in the Kyoto Protocol. The official name for the Kyoto Protocol is: the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, also known as UNFCCC.
Landfill Gas is a by-product gas from municipal solid waste landfills. Anaerobic bacteria accelerates organic material decomposition that leads to the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane. Together, these gases are called Landfill Gas.
A Large Site Peak Day Demand is the Supply Offtake Quantity (SOQ) sum for all large sites.
A Large Supply Point is a supply point with a reference consumption, AQ, Actual Quantity, equals or exceeds 732,000 kWh/25,000 therms per year.
Line Loss Factor codes calculate the cost of the amount of infrastructure used to deliver energy supplies and how much energy was lost during the transmission. These costs establish the MPAN DUoS charges.
Liquified Natural Gas, or LNG, is a natural gas state when the gas is cooled to approximately -160 degrees Celsius at atmospheric pressure. The condensed liquid is called Liquified Natural Gas or LNG.
An electrical load is a measure of how much electric power needs to be delivered or required at different points in the electrical system. Domestic and non-domestic energy users determine the amount of energy needed based on their consumption (e.g. lights being turned on).
A Loda Factor is a quantitative measure of the relationship between maximum demand and the actual energy consumption for a particular premises. The Load Factor measures the percentage capacity utilisation for a particular site.
Load Management is a technical term that describes how energy production sites can schedule and manage their production based on electricity pool price movements. Consumers who execute load management materially reduce three times per year when the National Grid takes the Triad maximum demand readings to calculate the transmission charges.
Local Distribution Zone is a pre-defined area where the total input and output demand are measured daily. Transco defines Local Distribution Zones.
The London Climate Change Agency (LCCA) is a private sector body that aims to tackle climate change. The LCCA aims to enable and deliver renewable, sustainable energy efficiency projects that will lead to material reduction in CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions in London.
A Low Carbon Building Programme (LCBP) is a UK government programme that funds microgeneration installation costs as well as other low carbon technologies.
Low Voltage is a technical term that refers to voltage that is normally at 240 or 415 Volts.
Low-enriched uranium is uranium that is enriched to less than 20% U-235.
The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is a 1992 international framework that addresses climate change challenges and greenhouse gas emissions. The UNFCCC’s objective is to stop hazardous man-made climate change. The UNFCCC commits developed countries to lead climate change solutions.
A Unit Price is the price per energy unit (expressed in Kilowatt Hours or kWh). A Unit Price has three price points – wholesale energy price (NBP), infrastructure costs and a cost-to-serve. Unit Prices are critical to understanding business and domestic energy bills. To read more, please click here.
The M Number Database is a National Grid web application that enables suppliers to look up basic site details for sites that they do not own.
Mains Electricity is the term used to describe electricity that the National Grid supplies to our homes.
Marine Generation is a name for technologies that seek to generate energy from marine environments. Typically these technologies are also known as Tidal & Wave. Tidal technology uses tide-caused underwater current to turn turbine blades. Tidal wave power is more predictable than wind power (that uses a similar principle but the wind, instead of tides, turns the blades). Waves can also generate electricity by capturing the vertical water movements. Marine Generation is in its early adoption stages as technologies are more expensive than alternatives.
A Market Code Sector is a meter classification that indicates whether a particular site is Industrial & Commercial or Domestic.
Maximum Annual Quantity is the total quantity to be delivered to a customer during the contract year. Maximum Annual Quantity or MAQ is normally found in the Take or Pay contractual clause.
Maximum Demand is the highest peak of usage (kWH) in any Half Hour during a calendar month or between two meter readings measured in either kW or kVA. This value is multiplied by 2 to give the MD on an hourly basis.
Mega Watt (MW) is a measure of power, one million watts.
Metal fuels are natural uranium metals that are used in a gas-cooled reactor.
Meter Asset Manager (MAM) will manage a portfolio of meters for their client, and this role can be taken on by a number of parties. They could be responsible for the meter replacement program or arrange Meter Work. The MAM can supply all known information for a meter point and will act as the point of contact regarding that meter point.
Meter Asset Provider (MAP) is the party who takes care of the current provision of the meter installation at the meter point. While a MAP provides the meter, the MAM could be the owner (title owner) of the meter or the MAM may lease or rent the meter from a third party.
Meter Operator (MOp) is the organisation that will maintain metering equipment.
Meter Operator Charges (MOp Charges) are charges that will cover the costs of maintaining metering equipment.
Meter Point Administration Service (MPAS) is an organisation that will have all information about MPANs.
Meter Serial Number is the number that is placed on the front of the meter. This number will change when the meter is exchanged.
Micro-CHP is a CHP (as above), but on a very small scale, typically below 5kW electrical output, (e.g. in the residential and commercial sectors). It commonly operates in place of a domestic central heating boiler.
Micro-Generation is a small-scale generation of energy, for example, solar panels or domestic wind turbines. They are usually referred to as generation from renewable sources at a domestic or small community level.
Million Cubic Meters (MCM) is approximately 360,000 therms.
MWh is Mega Watt hour, one thousand kWh. A 1 MW power-generating unit running for 1 hour generates 1 MWh of electrical energy.
National Balancing Point (NBP) is the point within the UK where wholesale gas is traded.
The National Grid is the party who owns the main transmission systems and takes care of transmitting the electricity from the generator to the local RECs area. All electricity generated in mainland UK is put into the National Grid before fed into distribution networks.
National Transmission System (NTS) is the National Grid’s high-pressure gas network.
Uranium with an isotopic composition as found in nature, containing 99.3% U-238, 0.7% U-235 and a trace of U-234. Can be used in heavy water-moderated reactors as fuel.
Network Code (NWC) is the rules and procedures that govern the way National Grid and every shipper operates within the deregulated market.
New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) are based on bi-lateral trading between generators, suppliers, traders and customers and are designed to be more efficient, and to provide greater choice for market participants. In England and Wales, these arrangements replaced ‘the pool’ from 27 March 2001.
A Nomination is a notice to National Grid from a Shipper to express the request for the offer details for a Supply point (transportation, metering, capacity, commodity costs, etc.).
A Nomination Flow is a notice to xoserve from a Shipper to express the request for the offer details for a Supply point (transportation, metering, capacity, commodity costs, etc.)
The Non Half Hourly (NHH) Meters are, unlike HH meters, the meter readers that must visit the site to receive readings. There are different tariffs (SSC) available.
Non-Daily Metered (NDM) Supply Point is the volume of gas consumed at the supply point. It is recorded at monthly, quarterly or longer intervals by traditional meter reading.
Non-Domestic is a supply point with an AQ of 73,200 kWh (2,500 therms), and it is regarded as a domestic site. A supply point with an AQ of over 73,00 kWh is regarded as non-domestic.
National Balancing Point (NBP) is the place where entry gas is brought to a virtual point in the system from which network users can transport to an exit point, and then becoming a trading hub.
Nuclear is an energy source that is low carbon. Even after all the processes such as construction, uranium mining and enrichment are included, the overall emissions are considerably low, and surprisingly, it can be compared to wind power.

Nuclear Power is using heat produced by an atomic reaction to generate electricity. The process of generation produces negligible amounts of carbon. This is the reason why nuclear is put forward as a way of reducing global carbon footprints.

A Nuclear reactor is a device in which a nuclear fission chain reaction performs under controlled conditions. This way, the heat yield can be harnessed or the neutron beams utilised. All commercial reactors are thermal reactors, and they use a moderator to slow down the neutrons.
Million Cubic Meters (MCM) is approximately 360,000 therms.
MWh is Mega Watt hour, one thousand kWh. A 1 MW power-generating unit running for 1 hour generates 1 MWh of electrical energy.
Offer is a note sent from XOSERVE to a Shipper as a reply to a nomination indicating the charges to be levied on a Supply Point.
Office Of Gas And Electricity Markets (OFGEM) is the gas and electricity markets’ government regulator.
Offset is commonly used to net off corporate emissions, and this way an organisation can claim to be carbon neutral. It is an emissions reduction, commonly resulting from a project undertaken in the developing world, which has been sold to compensate for emissions elsewhere.
Offtake is gas that is consumed by a site or customer. The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
Outstations are communication methods that are used to communicate with a meter i.e. GSM, modem, packnet.
Parallel grid mode is where the Cogeneration unit runs.
Pass Through Charges are charges that appear on bills to cover the costs of third parties involved in the energy supply chain to deliver power.
Peak Demand is a point on the national system of maximum electricity demand.
Percentage Day is a percentage ratio of electricity used in the daytime against the amount used in the night. The suppliers use this information to quickly identify the different types of profiles.
Photovoltaics (PV) is the direct conversion of solar radiation into electricity by the interaction of light with the electrons in a semiconductor device or cell.
The Pool is the Electricity Pool of England and Wales – the wholesale market that doesn’t exist anymore which the authorised Suppliers purchased electricity through – in this market, the price for electricity was determined by market forces and no one regulated it.
Power Exchange (PX) is a cleared market for electricity trading, for example, APX.
Power Factor is related to how efficiently electricity is used on different sites. Certain types of equipment cause poor power factor which reduces the capacity of the network to supply power. Distribution Network Operators' (DNO) can charge customers for this through power factor charges.
Power Line is the electrical wires that take electricity from the place of generation to the placed where it is used.
Power Station Gate (PSG) is the place where power station output is metered.
Pre-Network Code (PNC) is the operating methods and procedures used mainly to the introduction of the Network Code.
Public Registration System (PRS) is used for all premises in the UK to register suppliers, meter operators and distribution companies for settlement purposes.
Pylon is a large metal tower that carries very high voltage power lines.
Pyrolysis is a thermal degradation of waste in the absence of air to produce char, pyrolysis oil and syngas. d kWh. A 1 MW power-generating unit running for 1 hour produces 1 MWh of electrical energy.
Qualifying Use Limit is the percentage of domestic use gas on a mixed use site, above which the whole supply is charged at the reduced rate.
Ratcheting is applied by Certain Distribution Networks to their MPANs in case of the customer consumes over their agreed Availability (kVA). Once the account has been billed for Excess Availability, the level up to what they were billed becomes their new Availability (kVA), depending on the specific Networks policy.
Reactive Charges are applied to a client’s invoice in cases where certain suppliers and distribution companies enforce a penalty for Reactive Power use.
Reactive Power (KVAR) is the difference between the electricity that is supplied and the electricity that is converted into useful power. If the difference is significant, i.e. there is a huge amount of power being wasted, it adds an additional strain on the distribution network. The loss of power can be caused by kinetic energy (heat) or through defective machinery. This is measured via the Reactive register on a meter and is charged to the customer depending on how much they accumulate.
Regional Economic Strategies (RES) are produced by RDAs with partners and stakeholders in their region. These documents are revised at least every three years and set out the framework of regional economic priorities which guide the activities of organisations promoting regional economic development.
The Regulator is, in this case, OFGEM (the Office of Gas and Electricity Markets), who regulates the gas and electricity industries in the UK. This is a statutory body representing the interests of gas and electricity consumers in the UK.
Remote Non Half Hourly Meters are connected to a communication device and have an NHH set up.
Renewable Energy is the energy that is produced by using naturally replenishing resources. This includes solar power, wind, wave and tide and hydroelectricity. Wood, straw and waste are often called solid renewable energy, while landfill gas and sewerage gas can be described as gaseous renewables.
Renewable Energy And Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) is an international partnership to promote the growth of renewable energy and energy efficiency systems. It was launched by the UK at the World Summit on Sustainability Development (WSSD).
Renewable Energy Certificates (REC's) are also known as ‘Green Certificates’, green tags, or tradable renewable certificates. They represent the environmental attributes of the power produced from renewable energy projects and are sold separately from commodity electricity.
Renewable Energy Guarantee of Origin (REGO) is an electronic certificate used to provide evidence that a unit of electricity has been produced by a renewable generator. One REGO representing one kilowatt/hour of electricity. In some countries, they are called Guarantees of Origin – GoOs.
Renewable Obligation (RO) is the main government market mechanism to support renewable energy. It is an obligation on all electricity suppliers to supply a certain amount of their electricity sales from accredited renewable sources under the Climate Change Levy exemption scheme.
The Renewable Power Association is a trade association open to the companies that support the UK renewable energy industry.
Renewables Obligation (UK) is requiring power suppliers to derive a specified proportion of the electricity they supply to their customers from accredited renewable sources. This starts at 3% in 2003, rising gradually to around 10% by 2010 and 15.4% in 2015/16. The new Renewables Obligation and associated Renewables (Scotland) Obligation came into force in April 2002 as part of the Utilities Act (2000).
Renewables Obligation Certificate (ROC) is given to eligible renewable generators for each MWh of electricity generated. These certificates can then be sold to suppliers. In order to fulfil their obligation, suppliers can either present enough certificates to cover the required percentage of their output, or they can pay a ‘buyout’ price of £34.30 per MWh (set by Ofgem for 2007-2008) for any shortfall. All proceeds from buyout payments are recycled to suppliers in proportion to the number of ROCs they present.
Review of Gas Meter Arrangements (RGMA) is a project to determine industry wide business processes supporting data flows to underpin competition in gas metering services.
The seasonal efficiency database of boilers in the UK (SEDBUK) is the percentage efficiency of a boiler model. This database is used in the calculation of energy saving.
Service Industry Code (SIC) is a standard classification code which identifies the types of business conducted at the site.
Settlement Agency Fee is a charge (from Elexon, the UK’s Balancing and Settlement Code Company) for making sure all parties involved in distributing, supplying and measuring energy supply are paid appropriately.
Settlements Agency is the body that “settles” the distribution of electricity to establish where and to whom the generated load has been distributed.
A shipper is the buyer of gas from producers/importers. They transport it through the gas network by National Grid and sells the gas to their customers. The shipper may have a contract directly with the customer or may act on behalf of a 3rd party.
Shipper Interface Document is produced under the auspices of the National Grid.
Shipper Reference is a unique reference created by a Shipper to allow for all deliveries to be tracked.
Site is a geographic location at which gas is used by the customer. There may be several gas meters at a site, which measure the volume of the used gas.
Small Site Peak Daily Demand is a sum of (reference consumption) for all small sites.
Smart Metering is an ability to remotely read non-half hourly (NHH) meters. This way, the data is more reliable and the produced bills are more accurate.
Spark Spread is a form of analysis that is used to compare gas prices with electricity prices, by converting the gas price into a price per MWh and subtracting it from the electricity price in that period, taking into account power station efficiency. A negative spark spread indicates that it is more beneficial to sell gas than to produce and sell electricity.
Standing Charge is a daily or monthly charge to contribute towards installation, maintenance and administration costs for the local Distribution Network Operator (DNO).
Sub Station is an important part of the national grid. They contain transformers which increase or decrease the voltage of an electric current.
Sub-Metering is a term often used when a property owner installs a separate meter to monitor the consumption of a utility, for example, water, gas or electricity.
A Supplier is a person authorised by a supply licence to supply electricity or gas to the National Grid Network, through the Shipper.
Supplier Activity is energy efficiency work that is undertaken by suppliers to meet their energy efficiency targets.
Supplier Nominated Interruptible (SNI) is a site where the supplier has the right to interrupt the supply for commercial reasons.
Supply Hourly Quantity (SHQ) is the maximum hourly consumption for a supply point.
Supply Number is also known as MPAN – Meter Point Administration Number. It is a unique number identifying the distribution company and the location of the metering point.
Supply Offtake Quantity (SOQ) is the maximum daily consumption for a supply point.
Supply Point (SP) is a group of one or more meters for which National Grid shall make Natural Gas available for offtake by the Shipper.
Supply Point Administration (SPA) is a process by which Shippers and National Grid agree on ownership of supply points.
Take Or Pay is a percentage of gas purchased by the buyer from the seller against the Minimum Bill Quantity.
Tariff Structure is where suppliers quote for electricity in numerous different formats. These range from simple one-rated structures (the same price per kW at all times throughout the year) to complex “Seasonal Time of Day” tariffs which are multi-rated. i.e. the price changes three, six or eight times a day.
Temperature and Pressure are the varying conditions where gas either expands or contracts slightly. It is also known as the Conversion Factor and usually set at 1.02264. The Conversion Factor is taken into account when converting gas usage from volume to energy.
Thermal efficiency is a quantity of heat produced in relation to fuel input.
Therms are a unit of energy measurement. To calculate the equivalent value in kWh, multiply by 29.3071.
Time Pattern Regimes (TPR) are codes that state what date and time the meter registers start and finish.
Title (Meter) Owner is also referred to as Legal Title Owner. The person or Organisation to which the asset belongs, and that makes such assets available for the purpose of the Gas Act Owner.
A Transformer is an equipment that is used to change the voltage of an electric current. Transformers can increase or decrease voltage.
Transmission is a transfer of electricity at high voltage from the power stations across the UK through wires on pylons to points where it can be distributed to users. This is known as the Grid System and is owned and operated by the National Grid Company (NGC).
Transmission Losses (Line Losses) is the electricity that is lost when transmitting electricity from the generator to local distribution network areas. Specific calculations have to be made by suppliers to determine the level of these losses.
Transmission Use of System (TUoS) is the charges that are incurred for transmitting electricity across the National Grid network from the source of generation to the network of the local distribution company. The level of these charges is usually calculated by applying a rate charge to the TRIAD demand level.
Transportation Charge is a charge made by National Grid for the national transport of the shippers’ gas through the gas network (National and Regional Transmission system and the low and medium pressure distribution system) to the customer. The transportation charge consists of three things, which are dependent on the locations of the particular terminal and offtake site: capacity charge; commodity charge; and site charge.
Triad is used to calculate TUoS Charges. The Triad is calculated by looking at the three maximum demand points (in kW) of the supply at half hourly time periods, and then averaging the total. The figures used are usually selected from winter months, and at peak times, as these periods are set to reflect the point at which the highest demand occurs on the National Grid.
UK Kyoto Target is all greenhouse gases 12.5% below 1990 levels by 2008-12 National goal – CO2 20% below 1990 levels by 2010 Long-term goal – Reducing CO2 emissions by some 60% from current levels by 2050.
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international framework established in 1992 to tackle the issue of climate change and greenhouse gas emissions. The UNFCCC tires to prevent dangerous man-made climate change and commit developed countries to take the lead in tackling climate change.
Unit Price is the price per unit of energy which includes 3 components. They are energy wholesale price (energy at NBP), infrastructure costs and a cost to serve element.
Uranium (U) is a mildly radioactive element with two isotopes which are fissile (U-235 and U-233) and two which are fertile (U-238 and U-234). Uranium is the basic fuel of nuclear energy.
Value Added Tax (VAT) is a government-imposed tax on the supply of goods and different services. There are currently two rates of VAT applicable to supplies of electricity and gas. The standard rate and reduced rate. On supplies used solely for business purposes, VAT will usually be charged at the standard rate. Where supplies are completely or partly for domestic or charitable non-business use, that part of the supply qualifies for the reduced rate of VAT. This is known as ‘qualifying use’. Customers with qualifying use will need to submit a VAT Customer Declaration Certificate for each site, to advise us what percentage of the supply meets the qualifying criteria set by HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC). It’s important to know that VAT Declaration Certificates are not transferable between suppliers.
Voltage is a unit used to measure the electromotive force of an electric current.
The Voltage Scale is not determined by the customer but set by Networks when the premises supply is connected. Depending on what kVA is requested by the customer, and what Networks are faced with when installing the supply, will determine which voltage scale is required. The voltage scale can also be set by the Line Loss Factor.
Voltage Transformer is a device that reduces (or increases) the supply voltage, for example, an 11000/415 Volt Transformer would convert volt supply to 415.
Voluntary Withdrawal is a notice issued by a shipper stating that they wish to cease ownership of a Supply Point.
Waste is either high-level or low-level waste. High-level waste (HLW) is highly radioactive material arising from nuclear fission. It can be recovered from reprocessing spent fuel, though some countries regard spent fuel itself as HLW. It requires very careful handling, storage and disposal. Low-level waste (LLW) is mildly radioactive material usually disposed of by incineration and burial.
Waste Residue is the portion of the waste stream (domestic and commercial) which cannot be recovered or recycled at the moment.
Whole Current Metering is 100 amp and below.
Wind power is a conversion of energy in the wind into electrical power. The wind hits the blades of the wind turbine, which rotate and therefore power the generator. Wind farms can be placed on either land or at sea, with those offshore able to take advantage of the much stronger and consistent winds found off the coast.
Wobbe Index is a gross calorific value of Natural gas divided by the square root of the Relative Density. World Alliance for Decentralized Energy (WADE).
XOSERVE is a provider that delivers transportation transactional services on behalf of all major gas transportation companies.